Successful Nonverbal Communication by Dale Leathers
Nonverbal cues serve 6 major communication functions
1. Providing information
2. Regulating interactions
3. Expressing emotions
4. Allowing metacommunication
5. Controlling social situations
6. Forming and managing impressions
Two most important functions of the human face:
1. Communication of emotions
2. Identification of previously unidentified people
Facial Action Coding System
44 units of separate facial decoders
Breaks down face:
1 Brows & forehead
2 Eyelids, bridge of nose
3 Lower face
Six basic classes of meaning communicated by the face:
Three dimensions of facial meaning:
Left side of the face is most accurate for decoding emotion
Anglo-Saxons are more likely than Latinos to consciously control their facial expressions.
[34 guarding against] (?)
Facial decoding accuracy is lower for:
2. Very old
3. Very young
4. Decoding spontaneous (opposed to posed)
Perception of facial expressions
Undesirable personality characteristics:
low forehead thick lips oversize ears
naïve honest kind warm
Appropriate smiles enhance credibility while inappropriate smiles are viewed as an ingratiating self-presentation strategy.
–Vocal cues are the most powerful encoders of dominance.
–Unsmiling w/lowered brows is more dominant than smiling w/raised brows.
–The more visually attentive an animal is, the lower its place in the power hierarchy.
–The license to stare at others for the purpose of domination is the exclusive prerogative of the powerful.
–As your looking while speaking increases while your level of looking while listening decreases your visual dominance goes up.
–Perceived dominance of females in particular has been found to increase markedly as their visual dominance ratio increases.
Chapter Three: Eye Behaviours
In many cultures the divine eye has taken the form of a highly visible & powerful eye that keeps watch over every little thing in [relenters] gaze e.g. the cat goddess Bastet, the dominant deity in Egypt for 2,000 years.
Type of emotion displayed on face; intensity of emotion in eyes.
Individuals usually look away when they begin speaking and while talking and are apt to look at you and pause if they wish you to respond.
Look up and to the right: recall facts
Look up and to the left: lying or looking for correct response
Pupils are the best (infallible) indicators of lying.
With difficulty of reading tasks
Gaze avoidance: intentional avoidance of eye contact
Gaze omission: unintentional failure to make eye contact
Attention is on eyes 43.4% of the time, then the mouth 12.6%
Maintain steady eye-contact
Use varied voice modulation to express appropriate effect
Demonstrate appropriately high energy level by hand gestures, smiling and general body movement
Respond to questions with fluidity and little hesitation
1. Eye contact and appropriate smiling are of utmost importance
3. Attentive posture, direct body orientation, illustrator gestures and relatively close physical proximity
1. Adaptor gestures:
2. hand-to-face gestures
Vocal behaviours are most important:
1. Expressing oneself concisely
2. Answering questions fully
3. Stating personal opinions when relevant
4. Keeping to the subject at hand
Standard English is extremely important. People speaking “Black” English or Appalachian English are viewed as pessimistic, disreputable, dependent and unintelligent.
Physical attractiveness only counts when females are applying for non-managerial positions.
Interviewee’s social skills were most accurately inferred from amount of gesturing and talking and formality of dress. More was better than less.
1. People who are victims of social stigma (anorexics, etc)
2. People who display gender-inappropriate behaviour
3. Manipulative behaviour like wearing noticeable perfume